راهبردهای آموزش علوم و مهندسی همگام با زبان اشاره ناشنوایان

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی - واحد تهران غرب دانشگاه صنعتی شریف - آزمایشگاه ربات های اجتماعی http://www.mech.sharif.ir/web/14039/72

2 استاد دانشکده مهندسی مکانیک، دانشگاه صنعتی شریف، سرپرست واحد بین الملل فرشتگان-دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی

10.22047/ijee.2020.201276.1678

چکیده

زبان از ویژگی‌های مهم بشر و عنصر وجودی انسان است. زبانِ اشاره راهکاری برای رفع نیازهای شفاهی و ارتباطی جامعه ناشنوایان است، همان‌طور که زبان‌هایی همچون فارسی، چینی، انگلیسی و... راهکارهایی برای رفع نیازهای ارتباطی جامعه شنوایان است. تجربه‌های بی‌نظیر در زندگی، دیدگاه‌های دانشمندان را در پژوهش شکل می‌دهد. بنابراین، تنوع در زندگی و تجربه‌های فرهنگی در میان دانشمندان سبب گسترش جهت گیری‌های پژوهشی و درنهایت، اختراعات و اکتشافات علمی می‌شود. برای مثال، افراد ناشنوا چشم‌اندازهای بی‌نظیری را در پژوهش‌های علمی با موفقیت رقم زده‌اند. با این حال، افراد ناشنوا همچنان در آموزش علوم دانشگاهی با چالش‌هایی روبه‌رو هستند. بیشتر دانشجویان ناشنوا در رشته‌های علوم، فناوری، مهندسی و ریاضیات با استادانی ارتباط برقرار می‌کنند که تجربه کاری با افراد ناشنوا را ندارند و غالباً درباره چگونگی برقراری ارتباط با افراد ناشنوا آگاهی ندارند. لذا، نبود دسترسی به مهارت‌های ارتباطاتی لازم، معمولاً سبب می‌شود تا دانشجویان ناشنوا از تحصیل در علوم پایه و مهندسی احساس نارضایتی یا ناتوانی داشته باشند. در این مطالعه تلاش شد تا با استفاده از روش توصیفی-تحلیلی و همچنین مروری بر شواهد، نظرها و تجربه‌های کارشناسان و دانشمندان ناشنوا، راهکارهایی برای حمایت از بهترین دانشجویان ناشنوا در رشته‌های علوم و مهندسی ارائه شود. از این رو، برای مناسب‌سازی محیط تحصیلی ناشنوایان، درخصوص چیدمان کلاس و صندلی‌ها، راهبردهای تدریس و مربیگری در پژوهش مباحثی مطرح و همچنین به اهمیت حضور دانشمندان ناشنوا/کم‌شنوا در پژوهش‌های مرتبط با افراد ناشنوا اشاره شده است. به‌علاوه، بر لزوم و تأثیر آموزش زبان اشاره عمومی و تخصصی به‌صورت دروس اختیاری در برنامه‌های درسی دانشگاه‌ها به‌منظور افزایش مهارت‌های ارتباطی دانش‌آموختگان هنگام مواجهه با جامعه ناشنوا تأکید شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Science and Engineering Education Strategies Along With the Deaf-Sign Language

نویسندگان [English]

  • Minoo Alemi 1
  • Ali Meghdari 2
1 Islamic Azad University - Tehran West Branch Sharif University of Technology- Social Robotics Lab http://www.mech.sharif.ir/web/14039/72
2 professor , department of mechanical engineering sharif university
چکیده [English]

Language is one of the most important features of humanity and the element of human existence. Sign language is a solution to meet the verbal and communication needs of the deaf community just like Persian, Chinese, English, etc. are other ways to meet the communication needs of the hearing community. Unique experiences in life shape scientists and their perspectives on research. Therefore, the diversity of life and cultural experiences among scientists has led to the expansion of research directions and ultimately to scientific inventions and discoveries. Deaf people, for example, have been successful prospects in scientific research. However, the deaf continue to face challenges in academic science education. Most deaf students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics associate with professors who have little experience of working with deaf people, often lacking awareness of deaf people. Therefore, lack of access to the necessary communication skills usually causes deaf students to feel dissatisfied or unable to study basic science and engineering. This paper attempts to provide solutions to support the best deaf students in science and engineering, using a descriptive-analytical approach, reviewing the evidence, opinions, and experiences of deaf experts and scientists. Therefore, we discuss topics for teaching and coaching research in order to fit the deaf academic environment, regarding the layout of class and chairs, and also point out the importance of deaf/hard of hearing scientists in deaf-related research.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Sign language
  • deaf community
  • specialized language
  • science and engineering education
  • Communication skills
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