نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه مهندسی فنّاوری اطلاعات، دانشگاه تربیت مدرّس، تهران، ایران

2 گروه مدیریت فنّاوری اطلاعات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد تهران-شمال، تهران، ایران

10.22047/ijee.2022.230914.1744

چکیده

یادگیری الکترونیکی به وجهی ضروری از آموزش و یادگیری در دنیای امروز تبدیل شده است. آگاهی از عواملی که نقش تعیین‏کننده در پیشرفت یادگیری الکترونیکی دارند، در تعیین چشم‏انداز، راهبردها و سیاست‏های نهادهای بالادستی، سازمان‏ها و مراکز آموزشی و نیز شرکت‏های تجاری فعال در عرصۀ آموزش و یادگیری اهمیتی وافر دارد. در این مقاله، پیش‏ران‌های فنّاورانۀ یادگیری الکترونیکی مورد بحث قرار می‏گیرد و مهم‏ترین عوامل بر اساس مراحل چرخۀ تب فنّاورانه استخراج می‏شود. پژوهش با مطالعۀ اسنادی و با استفاده از اطلاعات به‌دست‌آمده از مراجع علمی، گزارش‌ها، مستندات، مصاحبه‌ها و اخبارِ منتشر‌شده صورت‌گرفته است. تلاش اصلی این مقاله در دو نکته خلاصه می‌شود: نخست شناسایی پیش‌ران‌های فنّاورانۀ یادگیری الکترونیکی و دیگر تحلیل وضعیت آموزش الکترونیکی در ایران از منظر فنّاوری‌های شناسایی‌شده. نتیجۀ بررسی نشان می‌دهد پیش‏ران‏های فنّاورانۀ یادگیری الکترونیکی عبارت‌ند از: یادگیری تطبیقی و شخصی‌شده، یادگیری سیّار، سکّوهای یادگیری اجتماعی، یادگیری تلفیقی، بازی‏پردازی، شبیه‏سازی، رایانش ابری، یکپارچه‏سازی و تعامل‏ پذیری، استاندارد xAPI، واقعیت مجازی، دوره‏های باز برخط و فراگیر (دوبابرف) و مدیریت محتوای ویدئویی. از سوی دیگر ارزیابی‌ها نشان می‌دهد در کشور چندان به این فنّاوری‌ها پرداخته نشده است. وضع کنونی یادگیری الکترونیکی در کشور نشان می‏ دهد فعالیت‏ های صورت‌گرفته در این زمینه، چندان منسجم، نظام‏مند و هم‏سو با تغییرات فنّاوری نبوده است. آنچه برای سامان‌دادن به این وضع ضروری به نظر می‌رسد، تغییر بنیادی نگاه به یادگیری الکترونیکی و به خدمت گرفتن فنّاوری به شیوه‏ای نظام‏مند در سیاست‌گذاری، برنامه‌ریزی و اجراست. آغاز سدۀ جدید هم‌زمان با تدوین برنامۀ هفتم توسعۀ ملّی، فرصت مغتنمی است تا دانشگاه‌ها به همراه وزارت علوم، تحقیقات و فنّاوری، سیاست‌ها و برنامه‌هایی ملّی در متن برنامه لحاظ کنند تا در یک دورۀ زمانی پنج‌ساله، امکان اصلاح مسیر آموزش الکترونیکی در کشور و بهره‌مندی نظام آموزشی از مزایای آن فراهم شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Identifying the Technological Drivers of e-Learning and Analyzing Them in Iran’s Higher Education (Emphasizing Engineering Education)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Gholam Ali Montazer 1
  • Tayyebeh Gashool Darehsibi 1
  • Mohammad Hassan Abbasi 2

1 Information Technology Department, Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran, Iran

2 Information Technology Management Department, North of Tehran branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

Nowadays, e-learning has become an essential aspect of education and learning. Being informed of the key factors of e-learning advancement is of high importance to determine the vision, strategies, and policies in top-level organizations, companies, educational institutions, and enterprises involved in education. In this paper, we discuss technological drivers of e-learning and extract the most important factors according to technology hype cycle. The research has been performed through archival and documentary research and using information attained from published scientific references, reports, documents, and press releases. Main goals of this paper are (1) identifying technological drivers of e-learning and (2) analyzing status of Iran’s higher education according to the identified drivers. The result of the study shows that technological drivers of e-learning are: personalized and adaptive learning, mobile learning, social learning platforms, blended learning, gamification, simulation, cloud computing, integration and interoperability, xAPI standard, virtual reality, massive open online courses (MOOC), and video content management. Moreover, investigation shows that these technologies have not been used extensively in Iran. The current status of e-learning in Iran shows that the activities done in this area are not so coherent, systematic, and unified with the technology transitions. What is necessary to rectify this situation is to change the point of view to the e-learning and exploit the technology in a systematic way in policies, plans, and implementation. Being at the start of the new century and simultaneously formulating Seventh National Development Plan creates an opportunity for universities and Ministry of Science, Research, and Technology to include national policies and programs in that plan. Consequently, they can provide the possibility of rectifying the current path in electronic education in Iran and exploiting its advantages for education system, in a period of 5 years duration. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • E-learning
  • technological driver
  • technology hype cycle
  • engineering education
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