Document Type : Scientific - Research


1 Department of Civil Engineering, university of Bonab, East Azerbaijan, Iran.

2 Department of Islamic Studies and General Courses


One of the barriers to deep learning of undergraduate students is their passive role in the classroom. Especially, in the compulsory online classes during the COVID-19 pandemic, students are less active compared with face-to-face classes. Here, the effect of online flipped classrooms on the learning and satisfaction of undergraduate civil engineering students was investigated. A semi-experimental study was conducted with 35 civil engineering students who took technical language course at University of Bonab. The same course, which was previously presented by the same instructor using a traditional lecture-based method, was selected as the control group to compare the results. The data obtained from the scores of quizzes and final exams as well as the questionnaires completed by the students were analyzed statistically, and the results indicated that in the initial sessions, the mean scores of the quizzes in the flipped method did not differ significantly from those of the traditional class. In the flipped online class, there was a statistically significant difference between the results of the initial quizzes compared to the subsequent ones. Although the scores of the subsequent quizzes and the final exam in the flipped class were higher than those obtained in the traditional class, it was statistically insignificant. The students’ statements indicated their satisfaction with the online class using flipped model compared to their other traditional online classes. However, there were some objections to the online flipped class, which were often due to lack of experience of the students and the instructor in using the method in cyberspace.Keywords: Personal knowledge management, employability, students, engineering education, academi achivement.


Adobe Systems.
Ahadiat, M. (2019). The impact of flipped classroom on the level of learning and satisfaction with teaching method in electrical engineering students of Islamic Azad University. Iranian Journal of Engineering Education, 20(80), 51-69 [in Persian].
Bates, T. (2014). Teaching in digital age. Retrieved on 2015/06/14 from:
Bates, T. (2019). Teaching in Digital Age. 2nd ed. Retrieved on 20.3.20. from:
Baytiyeh, H. (2012). Disparity between college preparation and career demands for graduating engineers. International Journal of Engineering Education, 28(5), 1221–1231.
Baytiyeh, H., & Naja, M. K. (2017). Students’ perceptions of the flipped classroom model in an engineering course: a case study. European Journal of Engineering Education, 42(6), 1048–1061.
Bazargan, A. (2016). Education Assessment. 2nd Ed. Tehran: SAMT Publications [in Persian].
Bazargan, A. (2020). The main core of quality in the university: Teaching-learning process. Retrieved from Iranian Society of Engineering Education (ISEE) website: [in Persian].
Bazargan, A., & Farasat-Khah, M. (2020). Monitoring and assessment in higher education. 2nd Ed. Tehran: SAMT Publications [in Persian].
Bergmann, J., & Sams, A. (2012). Flip Your Classroom: Reach every student in every class every day. Washington, DC: International Society for Technology in Education.
Bligh, D. A. (2000). What’s the Use of Lectures? San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Blin, F., & Munro, M. (2008). Why hasn’t technology disrupted academics’ teaching practices? Understanding resistance to change through the lens of activity theory. Computers and Education, 50(2), 475–490.
Chen, Y., Wang, Y., & Chen, N. S. (2014). Is FLIP enough? Or should we use the FLIPPED model instead? Computers & Education, 79, 16–27.
Commonwealth of Learning. (2020). Guidelines on Distance Education during COVID-19. Burnaby: COL.
Creswell, J.W. (2012). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. 4th Ed. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.
Davies, R. S., Dean, D. L. & Ball, N. (2013). Flipping the classroom and instructional technology integration in a aollege-level information systems spreadsheet course. Educational Technology Research and Development, 61(4), 563–580.
Enfield, J. (2013). Looking at the impact of the flipped classroom model of instruction on undergraduate multimedia students at CSUN. Tech Trends, 57(6), 14–27.
Estes, M. D., Ingram, R., & Liu, J. C. (2014). A review of flipped classroom research, practice, and technologies. International HETL Review, 4(7), 1–8.
Felder, R. M. (2012). Engineering education: A tale of two paradigms in shaking the foundations of geo-engineering education. edited by McCabe, B., Pantazidou, M., & Phillips, D. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Findlay-Thompson, S., & Mombourquette, P. (2014). Evaluation of a flipped classroom in an undergraduate business course. Business Education & Accreditation, 6(1), 63–71.
Flipped Learning Network Hub. (2015).
Flipped Learning Network Hub. (2016).
Fulton, K. P. (2012). 10 Reasons to Flip. New Styles of Instruction, 94(2), 20–24.
Galway, L. P., Corbett, K. K., Takaro, T. K., Tairyan, K., & Frank, E. (2014). A novel integration of online and flipped classroom instructional models in public health higher education. BMC Medical Education, 14(1), 181–190.
Gauthier, C., & Tardif, M. (2020). La Pédagogie: Théries et Pratiques de Lʹantiquité à nos jours. Translated into Persian by Mashayekh, F. Tehran: SAMT Publications [in Persian].
Google LLC.
Haghani, F., Rezaei, H., Baeigzade, A., & Eghbali, B. (2016). Flipped classroom: A pedagogical method. Iranian Journal of Medical Education, 16(11), 104–119 [in Persian].
Herreid, C. F. & Schiller, N. A. (2013). Case studies and the flipped classroom, Journal College Science Teaching, 42(5), 62–66.
Honeycutt, B., & Glova, S. (2013). 101 Ways to Flip Your Online Class. Flip It Consulting & Reify Media. Raleigh, NC.
Hotle, S. L., & Garrow, L. A. (2016). Effects of the traditional and flipped classrooms on undergraduate student opinions and success, J. Prof. Issues Eng. Educ. Pract., 142(1), 05015005.
Joshaghan-nejhad, F., & Bagheri, M. (2018). The effect of flipped-classroom on students’ Achievement motivation and learning in computer course. Research in Curriculum Planning, 15(31), 95–107 [in Persian].
Kanelopoulos, J. Papanikolaou, K. A. & Zalimidis, P. (2017). Flipping the classroom to increase students’ engagement and interaction in a mechanical engineering course on machine design. International Journal of Engineering Pedagogy (iJEP), 7(4), 19–34.
Magid, L. (February 26, 2013). Can technology disrupt education? Available online:
Marjoram, T. (2013). Transforming engineering education for innovation and development-A policy perspective. PBL Across Cultures, 272(1), 1–10.
Mason, G. S. Shuman, T. R. & Cook, K. E. (2013). Comparing the effectiveness of an inverted classroom to a traditional classroom in an upper-division engineering course. IEEE Transactions on Education, 56(4), 430–435.
Memarian, H. (2019). Retrieved from UNESCO Chair on engineering education website:
Mirzaei, H. (2020). Research in higher education, science and the corona crisis in Iran. Tehran: Institute for Social and Cultural Studies Publications [in Persian].
New-Media-Consortium. (2014). NMC horizon report 2014. Available online:
O’Flaherty, J. & Phillips, C. (2015). The use of flipped classrooms in higher education: A scoping review. The Internet and Higher Education, 25, 85–95.
Papadopoulos, C., & Roman. A. S. (2010). Implementing an inverted classroom model in engineering statics: Initial results. louisville, KY: American society for Engineering education.
Ramírez, D., Hinojosa, C., & Rodríguez, F. (2014). Advantages and disadvantages of flipped classroom: STEM students perceptions. In: 7th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation, Seville, Spain.
Roehl, A., Reddy, S. L., & Shannon, G. J. (2013). The flipped classroom: An opportunity to engage Millennial students through active learning strategies. J. Family Consum. Sci., 105(2), 44–49.
Setayesh, A. (2016). Engineering wonders-technical English for civil engineering. Tehran: Norouzi Publications [in Persian].
Siemens, G. (2014). Connectivism: A learning theory for the digital age. Int J Instruct Tech Distance Learn, 2 (1), 3–10.
Siller, T. J. (2001). Sustainability and critical thinking in civil engineering curriculum. Journal of Professional Issues in Engineering Education and Practice, 127(3), 104–108.
Tanner, M., & Scott, E. (2015). A flipped classroom approach to teaching systems analysis, design and implementation. Journal of Information Technology Education (JITE): Research, 14(1), 219–241.
Tea with Teacher.
Tune, J. D., Sturek, M., & Basile, D. P. (2013). Flipped classroom model improves graduate student performance in cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal physiology. Advances in Physiology Education, 37(4), 316–320.
Vita, G. D. (2001). Learning styles, culture and inclusive instruction in the multicultural classroom: A business and management perspective. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 38(2), 165–174.
Warter-Perez, N., & Dong, J. (2012). Flipping the Classroom: How to Embed Inquiry and design Projects into A Digital Engineering Lecture. Proceedings of the 2012 ASEE PSW Section Conference, Cal Poly, California, USA.
Winger, A. (February 2019). Five Ways to Flip the Online Classroom on Its Head. Available online:
Wong, T. H. Ip, E. J. Lopes, I. & Rajagopalan, V. (2014). Pharmacy students’ performance and perceptions in a flipped teaching pilot on cardiac arrhythmias. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 78(10), 185.
Wu, W. V., Hsieh, J. S. C., & Yang, J. C. (2017). Creating an online learning community in a flipped classroom to enhance EFL learners’ oral proficiency. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 20(2), 142–157.