The main emphasis of the science and technology policy is on three axes s of science creation, science dissemination and science application. There is no doubt that the road of advancement of technology is passing through field of science development. New achievement and expansion of science, specially in the field of engineering, is driven by the system developed from different technologies. There fore science and technology progresses are two elements with mutual interaction and should be evaluated in parallel. Science and technology progresses may be evaluated by various organizations in any country. However, one common approach is comparing such policies with the programs of other countries and making use of the good experiences of those who have succeeded in promotion of science and technology for the advancement and welfare of their people. In the present article, attempt is made to identify various evaluation criteria for the advancement of science and technology and to compare the trend of science production in Iran with that of some other countries of the region from 1981 up 2004. Details of the study are focused on the comparison with South Korea which has the same initial condition with our country on 1981. Findings show that we are far behind from South Korea and we need a more intensive effort to approach such state of advancement in science and technologies.