Document Type : Scientific - Research


1 Master of Architecture, Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Jundi-Shapur University of Technology, Dezful, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Jundi-Shapur University of Technology, Dezful, Iran

3 Assistant professor, Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Jundi-Shapur University of Technology, Dezful, Iran



One of the methods to create the idea in the architectural design is the principles and patterns in the natural phenomena. The current study consists of two sections. The first section introduces and recognizes the analogy of nature and its different types. Then, this section studies, classifies, and analyzes the opinions using the analytical-descriptive methods. In the second section, performances of two groups of undergraduate and graduate students of architecture, in architecture and Urbanism Faculty of the Jundi-Shapour University of Technology, Dezfoul, on how to deal with nature and analogy method was evaluated as freehand sketching using experimental study. The sketches were classified based on the modeling and analogy method into three classes of formal, structural, and conceptual analogies, which have conceptual, structural, and formal specifications based on the patterns of nature. The results show that undergraduate students selected the patterns based on their form, function, symbolism, aesthetics, feelings, design process, nature, climate, and structure. Also, graduate students selected the patterns based on the function, form, symbolism, feelings, climate, and structure. The form of nature was applied more among the undergraduate students, while the function of nature was utilized more among the graduate students.


Alemi, B., Pourdeihimi, S., & Mashayekh faridani, S. (2016). Structure, form and architecture. Journal of Architecture Studies, 5(9), 123-140 [in Persian].
Bastani, M., & Mahmoodi, A. (2019). Learning styles and analogical thinking method during the design process of architecture. Honar-Ha-Ye-Ziba: Memary Va Shahrsazi, 24(1), 71-84 [in Persian]. doi: 10.22059/jfaup.2019.261784.672064.
Bártolo H.M. G., &  P. J. S. Bártolo. (2002). Borrowing from nature to support architectural design.18th Annual Arcom conference.
Broadbent, G. (1973). Methodology in the service of delight, In Proceedings of the 4th Annual Conference of Environmental Design Research Association-EDRA, 314-318.
Casakin, H., & Goldschmidt, G. (1999). Expertise and the use of visual analogy: Implications for design education. Design Studies 20, 153-175.
Casakin, H. (2012). Visual analogy as a cognitive stimulator for idea generation in design problem solving. In: The psychology of problem solving: An Interdisciplinary Approach, S. Helie (Eds), Nova Science Publishers, New York. 
Faizi, M., Alipour, L., & Mohammad Moradi, A. (2017). Analogy to nature in architectural creation. Journal Of Architecture Studies, 6(11), 85-101 [in Persian].
Gentner, D. (1983). Structure-mapping: A theoretical framework for analogy. Cognitive Science, 7(2), 155-170.
Gero, J. S. (2000). Computational models of innovative and creative design processes.  Technological forecasting and social change, 64 (2-3), Elsevier Science Inc., 183-196.
Gharooni, F., Omrani Pour, A., & Yazdi, M. (2014). Bionic architectural design, case study the design of architectural shells with the inspiration of abalon pearl. Armanshahr Architecture & Urban Development, 6(11), 127-140 [in Persian].
Goldschmidt, G. (2011). Avoiding design fixation: Transformation and abstraction in mapping from source to target. Journal of Creative Behavior, 45 (2), 92-100., W.J.J. (1961). Synectics, the development of creative capacity. Harper & Row, New York.
Grout, L.,Wang, D. (2006). Research methods in architecture. Translated by Alireza Einifar. First Edition. Tehran: University Press Tehran [in Persian].
Iouguina, A.(2013). Biologically informed disciplines : a comparative analysis of terminology within the fields of bionics, biomimetics, and biomimicry. Carleton University Ottawa.
Iouguina, A., Dawson, J.W., Hallgrimsson, B & Smart, G. (2014). Biologically informed disciplines: a comparative analysis of bionics, biomimetics, biomimicry, and bio-inspiration among others. Internati Journal of Design & Nature and Ecodynamics, 9(3), 197-205. DOI:10.2495/DNE-V9-N3-197-205.
Jalali, A., & Golabchi, M. (2018). Sustainable prefabricated structure design by salt sediment inspired by material distribution optimization of human trabecular bone. Hoviateshahr, 12(33 ), 5-12 [in Persian].
Johnson-Laird, P .(1989). Analogy and the exercise of creativity, In: Similarity and analogical reasoning, S. Vosniadou, & A. Ortony (Eds). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Kim, j., & Park, K. (2018). The design characteristics of nature-inspired buildings. Civil Engineering and Architecture, 6(2), 88 - 107. DOI: 10.13189/cea.2018.060206.
Khakzand, M., & Ahmadi, A. (2008). Interaction of nature & architecture: a Glimpse. Bagh-e Nazar, 4(8), 23-24.  [in Persian].
Khakzand, M., Mozaffar, F., Faizi, M., & Azimi, M. (2010). Visual analogy” and its position in creative education of architectural design. Journal of Technology of Education (Journal of Technology and Education), 4(2), 153-162 [in Persian].
Knippers, J., & Speck, T.(2012). Design and construction principles in nature and architecture. Bioinspirationd & Biomimetics Journal, IOP Publishing, 7(1), 1-10.
Lawson, B. (2005). How designers think - The design process demystified. Tehran: Shahid Beheshti University.
Mashayekh faridani, S. (2013). Art of engineering inspired by nature. Housing and Rural Environment, 32(143), 3-14 [in Persian].
Mahdinejad, J., Cyrus Sabri, R., Ebrahim Damavandi, M., & Abbasporasadollah, J. (2012). Architectural Design on the basis of beauty and function in nature. Hoviateshahr, 6(10), 59-66 [in Persian].
Mahmoodi, A., & Bastani, M. (2018). Conceptualization methods in the design process of architecture. honar-ha-ye-ziba: Memary Va Shahrsazi, 23(1), 5-18 [in Persian].doi: 10.22059/jfaup.2018.238916.671776.
Medi, H., & Imani, M. (2018). Biomimic technology and nature inspiration. Naqshejahan, 8(1 ), 47-55 [in Persian].
Nachtigall, w., & Alfred, w. (2014). Bionics by examples: 250 scenarios from classical to modern times : Springer.
Nachtigall, w., & kurt, B. (2000). Das große buch der bionik. Neue technologien nach dem vorbild der natur: Dt. Verlag- Anst.
Nejad Ebrahimi, A., Tokhmechian, A. (2021). An analysis of the relationship between the historic Bazaar of tabriz and the rhizome as an organ of vegetative reproduction. Human & Environment, 19(2), 181-199 [in Persian].
Özkan, Ö., & Doğan, F. (2013). Cognitive strategies of analogical reasoning in design: Differences between expert and novice designers. Design Studies, 34(2), 161-192. doi:10.1016/j.destud. 2012.11.006.
Prosha Relph, E. (1976). Place and placelessness. Pion andnsky, H. M.
Rezaei, M. (2014). Design process (decoding “Analogy” as a major method of form and space producing). Hoviatshahr, 8(18), 71-80 [in Persian].
Rouhizadeh, A., & Hafezi, M., & Farokhzad, M. Bagh-Nazar, & Panahi, S. (2019). Inspiration from nature in the training of structural design in architecture. BAGH-E NAZAR, 15(68), 59-64 [in Persian].
Sharghi, A., & Ghanbaran, A. (2012). Inspiration of nature in training of architecture. Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 14(3), 118-107 [in Persian].Stevens, P. S. (1974). Patterns in nature, Little Brown.
Stewart, I. (2001). What shape is a snowflake? Weidenfeld & Nicolson.
Taghizadeh, K. (2007). Natural structures: Lessons for architects. Honar-Ha-Ye-Ziba, -(28), 75-84 [in Persian].
Unesco/uiafor architectural education. (2011). International union of architects. Available onlime :