Document Type : Scientific - Research


1 Faculty Member, Department of Educational Management and Planning, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

2 phd student of Curriculum Studies

3 Shiraz university

4 Department of Educational scinces, College of Educational sciences and psychology, shahid chamran University of Ahvaz.Iran


The main purpose of this research is to investigate the industry-oriented sense making competencies of engineering students. This qualitative research was carried out using the seven-step method of Sandlovski and Barroso. The metacomposite team consisted of three experts in curriculum planning and one expert in metacomposite research. 107 related research sources were used as the basis of the analysis, The result of which was extracting 11 themes of problem finding, finding a topic, choosing a topic with the aim of finding a new solution. Analyzing the information needs, designing and compiling the information search structure, implementing the information search process, evaluating the information search process, compiling the problem solving structure is based on the final information. Also the implementation of problem solving, the consequences of problem solving, and the final decision regarding the problem solving structure. The validity of the data was confirmed by using the techniques of reliability, transferability and alignment of data and trustworthiness of the data was also confirmed by the accurate guidance of the flow of information collection and alignment of the researchers. The results showed that proper sense making is necessary for success in many jobs, and a person must be able to make decisions, take action and develop an action plan in a turbulent and complex environment and in an uncertain state. Professors can show their creativity in the classroom by teaching sense making in the teaching process and combine the art of effective teaching with scientific knowledge. Based on the results of the research, on the one hand, it can provide educational planners with a wide range of experiences, on the other hand, the identification of themes analyzed in the sense masking approach has a significant impact on improving the quality of teaching in the field of engineering education. The correct understanding of these factors are very important for the university and the higher education system.


Abakumova, I. V., & Zorina, E. S. (2017). Sense-making techniques in educational process and their impact on the personal characteristics of students.International Journal of Cognitive Research in Science, Engineering and Education,5(2), 41.
Agarwal, N. K. (2012). Making sense of sense-making: tracing the history and development of Dervin’s sense-making methodology. InInternational perspectives on the History of Information Science & Technology: Proceedings of the ASIS&T 2012 Pre-Conference on the History of ASIS&T and Information Science and Technology(pp. 61-73). Medford, NJ: Information Today.
Akgün, A. E., Keskin, H., Lynn, G. (2012). Antecedents and consequences of team sensemaking capability in product development projects.R&D Management, 42(5), 473-493.
Anatan, L. (2015). Conceptual issues in university to industry knowledge transfer studies: A literature review.Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences,211, 711-717.
Andersson, R. (2022). Policy and identification: Exploring the influence of identity perceptions on school leader sense-making in the Swedish school-age Educare.Management in Education,36(2), 57-63.
Aref, H., Seyyed Javadin, S., Pourezzat, A. (2019). Sensemaking: concept analysis and implications for human resource management.Journal of Public Administration,11(3), 509-529. [In Persian].
Arvidsson, S., & Johansson, J. (2019). Sense-making and sense-giving: reaching through the smokescreen of sustainability disclosure in the stock market. InChallenges in Managing Sustainable Business(pp. 77-109). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.
Aselmaa, A., van Herk, M., Laprie, A. (2017). Using a contextualized sensemaking model for interaction design: a case study of tumor contouring.Journal of Biomedical Informatics,65, 145-158.
Azami, M; Fatahi, A; Parirukh, M. (2014). Sense making theory and its application in supporting the information seeking behavior of users in the user interface environment of databases. Librarianship and information research paper. 6(1).25-47. [In Persian].
Basu, K., & Palazzo, G. (2008). Corporate social responsibility: A process model of sensemaking.Academy of management review,33(1), 122-136.
Bien, C., & Sassen, R. (2020). Sensemaking of a sustainability transition by higher education institution leaders.Journal of Cleaner Production,256, 120299.
Boin, A. (2014). Making sense of sense-making: the EU’s role in collecting, analysing, and.Migration,45(4), 3-37.
Brandt, L., & Popejoy, L. (2020). Use of sensemaking as a pedagogical approach to teach clinical ethics: An integrative review.International Journal of Ethics Education,5(1), 23-37.
Browning, L. G. (2019).Principal sense making and special education discipline: a multiple case study of secondary building-level administrators(Doctoral dissertation, University of Missouri--Columbia).
Buchel, O. (2012). Making sense of document collections with Map-Based Visualizations.
Carter, V. M. (2013).Culture and credibility: the sense-making process of Peruvian parents following their child’s cleft diagnosis(Doctoral dissertation, University of Georgia).
Chater, N., & Loewenstein, G. (2016). The under-appreciated drive for sense-making.Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization,126, 137-154.
Chenail, R. J. (2011). Learning to appraise the quality of qualitative research articles: a contextualized learning object for constructing knowledge.Qualitative Report,16(1), 236-248.
Chittuparamban, B. A. (2013).Organizational sensemaking and enactment: Public policy and change management of private professional college administrators in Kerala, India(Doctoral dissertation, Seton Hall University).
Chrons, A., & Kaivola, J. (2019). Consultant project managers coping with liminality: An identity and sensemaking perspective.
Cloete, N., Bunting, I., & Maassen, P. (2015). Research universities in Africa: An empirical overview of eight flagship universities.Knowledge production and contradictory functions in African higher education,1, 18-31.
Coburn, C. E. (2005). Shaping teacher sensemaking: School leaders and the enactment of reading policy.Educationa
policy,19(3), 476-509.
Colley, C. J. (2018).Responsive teaching and responsive coaching: Opportunities to advance practice and foster student sensemaking(Doctoral dissertation).
Cuevas Shaw, L. (2021). From sensemaking to sensegiving: A discourse analysis of the scholarly communications community’s public response to the global pandemic.Learned Publishing,34(1), 6-16.
Darvishan, A., Taslimi, M., & Hakimzadeh, R. (2019). Designing a model of employability skills for higher education graduates (Case study: SMEs in Tehran Province).Journal of higher education curriculum studies,10(19), 7-39.
Davami, P. (2015). What do engineering universities not teach? Iranian Journal of Engineering Education. 18(72), 1-21. [in Persian].
De Liddo, A., Souto, N. P., & Plüss, B. (2021). Let’s replay the political debate: Hypervideo technology for visual sensemaking of televised election debates.International Journal of Human-Computer Studies,145, 102537.
de los Santos, X. (2017).Teachers’ sensemaking about implementation of an innovative science curriculum across the settings of professional development and classroom enactment. Michigan State University.
Degn, L. (2015). Sensemaking, sensegiving and strategic management in Danish higher education.Higher Education,69 (6), 901-913.
Degn, L. (2018). Academic sensemaking and behavioural responses-exploring how academics perceive and respond to identity threats in times of turmoil.Studies in Higher Education,43(2), 305-321.
Dervin, B., & Foreman-Wernet, L. (2012). Sense-making methodology as an approach to understanding and designing for campaign audiences.Public Communication Campaign 4th Ed: SAGE, 147-61.
do Nascimento Souto, P. C., Dervin, B., & Savolainen, R. (2012). Designing for knowledge creation work: an exemplar application of sense-making methodology.RAI Revista de Administrator Inova (2), 274-297.
Endert, A., Fiaux, P., & North, C. (2012). Semantic interaction for sensemaking: inferring analytical reasoning for model steering.IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics,18(12), 2879-2888.
Etzkowitz, H., & Zhou, C. (2017).The triple helix: University - industry - government innovation and entrepreneurship. Routledge.
Faisal, S., Blandford, A., & Potts, H. W. (2013). Making sense of personal health information: challenges for information visualization.Health Informatics Journal, 19(3), 198-217.
Fan, Z., & Dawson, P. (2022). Gossip as evaluative sensemaking and the concealment of confidential gossip in the everyday life of organizations.Management Learning,53(2), 146-166.
Fiegener, M., & Coakley, J. (2002). Making sense of strategic alignment: an interpretive view of alignment problems and practices.Journal of Information Technology Management,13(3-4), 15.
Foss, L., & Gibson, D. V. (2015). The entrepreneurial university: Context and institutional change. in The Entrepreneurial University (pp. 1-17). Routledge.
Ganon-Shilon, S., & Schechter, C. (2017). Making sense of school leaders’ sense-making.Educational Management Administration & Leadership,45(4), 682-698.
Garud, R., Dunbar, R. L., & Bartel, C. A. (2011). Dealing with unusual experiences: A narrative perspective on organizational learning.Organization Science, 22(3), 587-601.
Giuliani, M. (2016). Sensemaking, sensegiving and sensebreaking: The case of intellectual capital measurements.Journal of Intellectual Capital.
Gonzalez, J. M. (2008).An exploration of the sensemaking process during the implementation of academic tracking systems at three public universities. University of South Florida.
Grigoreanu, V., Burnett, M., Wiedenbeck, S. (2012). End-user debugging strategies: A sensemaking perspective.ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI),19(1), 1-28.
Grimaldi, R., Kenney, M., Siegel, D. (2011). 30 years after Bayh-Dole: Reassessing academic entrepreneurship.Research Policy, 40(8), 1045-1057.
Gross, M. K. (2010). Sense-making in theory and practice: a metatheoretical foundation and application for health information seeking.
Haas, E. J., & Yorio, P. L. (2018). Using sensemaking theory to improve risk management and risk communication: what can We Learn.Selected Issues Glob Health Commun,26, 11-26.
Harris, N. (2017).Cultivating collective sensemaking: Exploring how academic deans shape academic priorities during the annual budget review (Doctoral dissertation).
Harviainen, J. T., & Melkko, R. (2022). Organizational information creation through a design game: A sensemaking perspective.Library & Information Science Research,44(3), 101172.
Haverly, C., Calabrese Barton, A., Schwarz, C. V (2020). “Making space”: How novice teachers create opportunities for equitable sense-making in elementary science.Journal of Teacher Education,71(1), 63-79.
Heydari, E. (2015). Examining organizational change from the point of view of meaning making. The Fourth International Conference on Strategic Management.
Hill, R. C., & Levenhagen, M. (1995). Metaphors and mental models: Sensemaking and sensegiving in innovative and entrepreneurial activities.Journal of Management,21(6), 1057-1074.
Hossain, G. (2014). Modeling cognitive ability-demand gaps in collaborative sense-making and designing assistive technology solutions.
Hoyte, C. A. S. (2015). Making sense of entrepreneurial opportunities (Doctoral dissertation, University of Nottingham).
Hoyte, C., Noke, H., Mosey, S. (2019). From venture idea to venture formation: The role of sensemaking, sensegiving and sense receiving. International Small Business Journal, 37 (3), 268-288.
Hunter, K. H., Rodriguez, J. M. G., & Becker, N. M. (2021). Making sense of sensemaking: using the sensemaking epistemic game to investigate student discourse during a collaborative gas law activity.Chemistry Education Research and Practice, 22 (2), 328-346.
Ito, K., & Inohara, T. (2015). A model of sense-making process for adapting new organizational settings; Based on case study of executive leaders in work transitions.Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences,172, 142-149.
Janes, J. L. (2016). The sensemaking experience of newly appointed district teacher leader coordinators: A case study.
Jap, T. B. (2008). Organisational learning and information systems: an exploration from a sensemaking perspective. (Doctoral dissertation, UNSW Sydney)
Jäppinen, A. K. (2014). Collaborative educational leadership: The emergence of human interactional sense-making process as a complex system.Complicity: An international Journal of Complexity and Education,11(2).
Jensen, T. B., Kjærgaard, A., & Svejvig, P. (2009). Using institutional theory with sensemaking theory: A case study of information system implementation in healthcare.Journal of Information Technology,24(4), 343-353.
Jivet, I., Scheffel, M., Schmitz, M. (2020). From students with love: An empirical study on learner goals, self-regulated learning and sense-making of learning analytics in higher education.The Internet and Higher Education,47, 100758.
Johnson, D., & Bock, A. J. (2017). Coping with uncertainty: entrepreneurial sensemaking in regenerative medicine venturing.The Journal of Technology Transfer,42(1), 33-58.
Jolaoso, Sh., Burtner, R., Endert, A. (2015).  Toward a deeper understanding of data analysis, sensemaking, and signature discovery. 15th Human-Computer Interaction (INTERACT), pp.463-478
Jones, E., Leask, B., Brandenburg, U. (2021). Global social responsibility and the internationalisation of higher education for society.Journal of Studies in International Education,25(4), 330-347.
Josefsson, M. Y. (2015).Social foundations of sense making: four case studies. (Doctoral dissertation, Manchester Metropolitan University).
Kramer, M. W. (2017). Sensemaking.The International Encyclopedia of Organizational Communication, 1-10.
La Rue, C. (2013). Sensemaking, metaphors and higher education: Understanding students’ perspectives and behaviors.Unpublished undergraduate honors Thesis, University of Colorado.
Laszczuk, A., & Garreau, L. (2018). Business modeling: a sensemaking perspective.Lawrence, J., Snaith, M., Konat, B. (2017). Debating technology for dialogical argument: Sensemaking, engagement, and analytics.ACM Transactions on Internet Technology (TOIT),17(3), 1-23.
Lebiere, C., Pirolli, P., Thomson, R. (2013). A functional model of sensemaking in a neurocognitive architecture.Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience, 2013.
Lee, Y. H. (2021). Determinants of research productivity in Korean Universities: The role of research funding.The Journal of Technology Transfer,46(5), 1462-1486.
Li, L., Lin, C., & Lai, G. (2016). Technology sensemaking by university administrators, faculty and staff: Unity and divergence.International Journal of Technology in Teaching and Learning,12(1), 1-16.
LI, X., & Todd, R. J. (2015). Graduate students’ sense making process in collaborative learning tasks. conference 2015 Proceedings.‏
Lincoln, Y S. Guba, E G. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Liu, Z. (2013). A semiotic interpretation of sense-making in information seeking.Library Philosophy & Practice, 1-5.
Luo, Y. (2009). Public Relations and sensemaking during organizational change in multinational organizations in china (Doctoral dissertation).
Lycett, M., & Marshan, A. (2016). Capturing sensemaking pattern during data analysis: A conceptual framework.
Lyon, S. J. (2017).Sensemaking in entrepreneurial ventures. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Warwick).
Maitlis, S., & Christianson, M. (2014). Sensemaking in organizations: Taking stock and moving forward.Academy of Management Annals,8(1), 57-125.
Maitlis, S., Vogus, T. J., & Lawrence, T. B. (2013). Sensemaking and emotion in organizations. Organizational Psychology Review,3(3), 222-247.
Meng, T., Newth, J., & Woods, C. (2022). Ethical sensemaking in impact investing: Reasons and motives in the Chinese renewable energy sector.Journal of Business Ethics, 1-27.
Mills, J. H., & Mills, A. J. (2000). Sensemaking and the gendering of organizational culture. Administrative Sciences Association of Canada-Annual Conference-(Vol. 21, No. 11, pp. 11-20). ASAC; 1999.
Mitchell, W. (2010). Agile sense-making in an intersubjective environment. The International C2 Journal, 4(1), 1-29.
Mizrahi-Shtelman, R. (2021). Role identity and sensemaking as institutional mechanisms for policy translation: The case of school principals and education reforms in Israel.Leadership and Policy in Schools,20(2), 203-221.
Mokhtarzadeh, N; Rashidi Astana, M. (2015). Examining the effect of technological sense making and organizational capability on innovative performance with emphasis on the mediating role of absorptive capacity. Technology Development Management Quarterly. 3(5)
Montonen, T., Moilanen, J., & Eriksson, P. (2019). Where does it lead to? Nowhere! Problematic sensemaking concerning commercialisation.
Mounde, M. (2022). Job analysis and design.
Naaranoja, M., & Uden, L. (2016). Sense making in a small renovation planning process. In Proceedings of The 11th International Knowledge Management in Organizations Conference on The Changing Face of Knowledge Management Impacting Society (pp. 1-5).
Nakikj, D. (2019).Investigating and supporting sensemaking within online health communities. (Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University).
Namvar, M., Cybulski, J., Phang, C. (2018). Simplifying sensemaking: Concept, process, strengths, shortcomings, and ways forward for information systems in contemporary business environments.
Ng, P. T., & Tan, C. (2009). Community of practice for teachers: sensemaking or critical reflective learning?.Reflective Practice,10(1), 37-44.
Niemi, L., Stenholm, P., Hakala, H. (2022). Immanent sensemaking by entrepreneurs and the interpretation of consumer context.International Small Business Journal, 02662426211061531.
Nik Nia, M; Mansourian, Y. (2015). Representing the conceptual links of three theories of information behavior based on the process of sense making. Information and Communication Quarterly. 3(12). 207
Ntuen, C. A. (2008).The process of sensemaking in complex human endeavors. North Carolina Agriculture and Technical State Univ greensboro nc center for human machine studies. 
O’Connor, M. (2017).Understanding sensemaking in organisational change: A cognitive mapping approach. (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Birmingham).
Odden, T. O. B., & Russ, R. S. (2018). Sensemaking epistemic game: A model of student sensemaking processes in introductory physics.Physical Review Physics Education Research,14 (2), 020122.
Olmstead, A., & Turpen, C. (2017). Pedagogical sensemaking or “doing school”: In well-designed workshop sessions, facilitation makes the difference.Physical Review Physics Education Research,13(2), 020123.
Palatnik, A., & Koichu, B. (2017). Sense making in the context of algebraic activities.Educational Studies in Mathematics,95(3), 245-262.
Parrish, D. (2020). Ready the canons: The role of canonical stories in organizational sensemaking.International Journal of Business Communication, 2329488420918389.
Patriotta, G., & Spedale, S. (2009). Making sense through face: Identity and social interaction in a consultancy task force.Organization Studies,30(11), 1227-1248.
Perryman, C. L. (2011).The sense-making practices of hospital librarians. (Doctoral dissertation, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill).
Pirolli, P., & Card, S. (2005). The sensemaking process and leverage points for analyst technology as identified through cognitive task analysis. Proceedings of International Conference on Intelligence Analysis (Vol. 5, pp. 2-4).
Pirolli, P., & D. M. Russell. 2011. Introduction to this special issue on sensemaking. Human-Computer Interaction 26 (1): 1–8.
Pirolli, P., & Russell, D. M. (2011). Introduction to this special issue on sensemaking.Human–Computer Interaction,26(1-2), 1-8.
Reid, D. B. (2021). US principals’sensemaking of the future roles and responsibilities of school principals.Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 49 (2), 251-267.
Rom, N., & Eyal, O. (2019). Sensemaking, sense-breaking, sense-giving, and sense-taking: How educators construct meaning in complex policy environments.Teaching and Teacher Education,78, 62-74.
Russell, D. M., Stefik, M. J., Pirolli, P. (1993). The cost structure of sensemaking. Proceedings of the INTERACT’93 and CHI’93 Conference on Human factors in Computing Systems  (pp. 269-276).
Russell, W. F. (2013).Teacher sensemaking of student discipline practices in a small town texas middle school (Doctoral dissertation).
Saleem, G., Nouman, M., & Xiong, L. (2018). Entrepreneurial sensemaking: An examination of socially situated cognitive mechanisms.Abasyn University Journal of Social Sciences, 1-16.
Salehi Imran, I, Ain Khah, F (2021). Designing a competency development model for the field of civil engineering according to the needs of the labor market. Iranian Engineering Education Quarterly. 23(89).19-41 [in Persian].
Sandberg, J., & Tsoukas, H. (2020). Sensemaking reconsidered: Towards a broader understanding through phenomenology.Organization Theory,1(1), 2631787719879937.
Savolainen, R. (1993). The sense-making theory: Reviewing the interests of a user-centered approach to information seeking and use. Information Processing & Management, 29 (1), 13-28.
Savolainen, R. (2006). Information use as gap-bridging: The viewpoint of sense-making methodology.Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology,57(8), 1116-1125.
Sawyers, M. (2020).Governing in crisis: Sensemaking and sensegiving in Virginia school districts during COVID-19(Doctoral dissertation).
Schildt, H., Mantere, S., & Cornelissen, J. (2020). Power in sensemaking processes.Organization Studies,41(2), 241-265.
Schmuhl, A. T. (2020). Making sense leading change: A new superintendent’s challenge. (Doctoral dissertation).
Sharma, N. (2006). Sensemaking: Bringing theories and tools together.Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology,43(1), 1-8.
Shia and Kong Lant, T. K. (2002). Organizational cognition and interpretation.J. A. C. Baum, Ed. The Blackwell Companion to Organizations.Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 344-362.
Siegel, D. S., & Wright, M. (2015). Academic entrepreneurship: time for a rethink? British Journal of Management, 26 (4), 582-595.
Smerek, R. (2011). Sensemaking and sensegiving: An exploratory study of the simultaneous “being and learning” of new college and university presidents.Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies,18(1), 80-94.
Solomon, P. (1997). Discovering information behavior in sense making. The Social Journal of the American Society for Information Science,48(12), 1109-1126.
Søyland, L., & Gulliksen, M. S. (2019). Sense-making through touch interaction with a picturebook app.Barnelitterært Forskningstidsskrift, 10 (1), 1-12.
Steigenberger, N., & Lübcke, T. (2022). Space and sensemaking in high-reliability task contexts: Insights from a maritime mass rescue exercise.Organization Studies, 43 (5), 699-724.
Stephens, K. K., Jahn, J. L., Fox, S.ET AL (2020). Collective sensemaking around COVID-19: Experiences, concerns, and agendas for our rapidly changing organizational lives.Management Communication Quarterly, 34(3), 426-457.
Sukhov, A., Sihvonen, A., Netz, J.ET. (2021). How experts screen ideas: The complex interplay of intuition, analysis and sensemaking.Journal of Product Innovation Management,38(2), 248-270.
Tao, Y., & Tombros, A. (2017). How collaborators make sense of tasks together: A comparative analysis of collaborative sensemaking behavior in collaborative information-seeking tasks. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology,68(3), 609-622.
Van der Giessen, M., Langenbusch, C., Jacobs, G. (2022). Collective sensemaking in the local response to a grand challenge: Recovery, alleviation and change-oriented responses to a refugee crisis.Human Relations,75(5), 903-930.
Van der Steen, M. (2017). Managing bottom up strategizing: collective sensemaking of strategic issues in a Dutch Bank. Long Range Planning,50(6), 766-781.
Venkataraman, S., Sarasvathy, S. D., Dew, N. (2012). Reflections on the 2010 AMR decade award: Whither the promise? Moving forward with entrepreneurship as a science of the artificial. Academy of Management Review, 37 (1), 21-33.
Wei, C. F., & Lii, P. (2022). Evaluation of an occupational competency-based curriculum and its impacts on learning outcomes.Technium Social Sciences Journal,32, 157-183.
Weick, K. E. (1995).Sensemaking in organizations(Vol. 3). Sage.
Weick, K. E. (2006). Faith, evidence, and action: Better guesses in an unknowable world.Organization Studies, 27 (11), 1723-1736.
Weick, K. E., Sutcliffe, K. M., & Obstfeld, D. (2005). Organizing and the process of sensemaking. Organization Science, 16 (4), 409-421.
Weick, K., Sutcliffe, K., & Obstfeld, D. (2009). Organizing and the process of sensemaking. Handbook of Decision Making, 16 (4), 83.
Wetzel, R., & Dievernich, F. E. (2014). Mind the gap. The relevance of postchange periods for organizational sensemaking. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 31 (2), 280-300.
Xiaofang, B., Bound, H., Mohamed, F. et al. (2021). Understanding adult learners’ sense-making to inform pedagogical innovations in blended learning.
Zarghami, H R; Jafari, M; Izadkhah, S. (2021). Identifying, prioritizing and checking the degree of adaptability of the skills required by industrial engineering graduates to enter the labor market. Iranian Journal of Engineering Education. 23(92), 7-34 [in Persian].
Zarinbal, M. (2019). Designing a conceptual model of sensemaking strategy for services provided in Ganj.Iranian Journal of Information Processing and Management,35(1), 77-106 [In Persian].Zhang, P. (2008). Support sense-making with tools for structuring a conceptual space.
Zhang, P. (2010).Sensemaking: Conceptual changes, cognitive mechanisms, and structural representations. A qualitative user study. University of Maryland, College Park.
Zhang, P., & Soergel, D. (2014). Towards a comprehensive model of the cognitive process and mechanisms of individual sensemaking.Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology,65(9), 1733-1756. Zhang, P., & Soergel, D. (2020). Cognitive mechanisms in sensemaking: A qualitative user study.Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology,71(2), 158-171.
Zhang, P., Soergel, D., Klavans, J. L. et al. (2008). Extending sense-making models with ideas from cognition and learning theories. Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 45(1), 23-23.